Sunday, August 9, 2009

C# Questions

  • Does C# support multiple-inheritance?


  • Who is a protected class-level variable available to?

It is available to any sub-class (a class inheriting this class).

  • Are private class-level variables inherited?

Yes, but they are not accessible. Although they are not visible or accessible via the class interface, they are inherited.

  • Describe the accessibility modifier “protected internal”.

It is available to classes that are within the same assembly and derived from the specified base class.

  • What’s the top .NET class that everything is derived from?


  • What does the term immutable mean?

The data value may not be changed. Note: The variable value may be changed, but the original immutable data value was discarded and a new data value was created in memory

  • What’s the difference between System.String and System.Text.StringBuilder classes?

System.String is immutable. System.StringBuilder was designed with the purpose of having a mutable string where a variety of operations can be performed.

  • What’s the advantage of using System.Text.StringBuilder over System.String?

StringBuilder is more efficient in cases where there is a large amount of string manipulation. Strings are immutable, so each time a string is changed, a new instance in memory is created

  • Can you store multiple data types in System.Array?


  • What’s the difference between the System.Array.CopyTo() and System.Array.Clone()?

The Clone() method returns a new array (a shallow copy) object containing all the elements in the original array. The CopyTo() method copies the elements into another existing array. Both perform a shallow copy. A shallow copy means the contents (each array element) contains references to the same object as the elements in the original array. A deep copy (which neither of these methods performs) would create a new instance of each element's object, resulting in a different, yet identacle object.

  • How can you sort the elements of the array in descending order?

By calling Sort() and then Reverse() methods.

  • What’s the .NET collection class that allows an element to be accessed using a unique key?


  • What class is underneath the SortedList class?

A sorted HashTable.

  • Will the finally block get executed if an exception has not occurred?­


  • What’s the C# syntax to catch any possible exception?

A catch block that catches the exception of type System.Exception. You can also omit the parameter data type in this case and just write catch {}.

  • Can multiple catch blocks be executed for a single try statement?

No. Once the proper catch block processed, control is transferred to the finally block (if there are any).

  • Explain the three services model commonly know as a three-tier application.

Presentation (UI), Business (logic and underlying code) and Data (from storage or other sources).

  • What is framework?
The Microsoft .NET Framework is a software framework that can be installed on computers running Microsoft Windows operating systems. It includes a large library of coded solutions to common programming problems and a virtual machine that manages the execution of programs written specifically for the framework. The .NET Framework is a key Microsoft offering and is intended to be used by most new applications created for the Windows platform.

  • What are the advantage of using
  1. They can be executed more quickly as they are compiled by executable portions of a web application
  2. On the fly updates of deployed web application without restarting the server
  3. It simplifies many aspects of windows programming
  4. Its security is high as it is built in security through windows server or through authentication or Authorization methods
  5. Integration wit to provide Database access & design tools from within
  6. It fully supports mark up language
  7. Automatic state management is there
  • What is the advantages of storing the information on the client side?
  1. Better Scalability: with the server side state management each client that connects to the web server consumes memory in the web server.If the consumers are very high this can be a limitting factor. The client side management helps to rectify this difficulty
  2. Supports Multiple Web Server: In client side management we can distribute the incoming request to multiple web server with no change in your application, so the server needs only to process the request
  • What is the advantages of storing the information on the server side?
  1. Better Security: Client side management can be captured or modified easily, so confidential datas can never be stored in client side
  2. Reduced Bandwidth: If you are using client side management the bandwidth required will b high and the page load time will increase which will potentially increase your cost

  • How a web application works?

On the client side web application is hosted by the browser(IE,Firefox etc). The application user interface takes the form of html pages,that are interpreted and displayed by the client's browser.

On the server side web application runs under Microsoft Internet Information Services(MIIS). The IIS manages the application,passes the request from the client to the application and returns application's response to the client.These requests and responses are passed across the internet using http

Monday, November 24, 2008

some HR Questions

  1. Tell me about yourself. Use “Picture Frame Approach”

Answer in about two minutes. Avoid details, don’t ramble. Touch on these four areas:

  • How many years, doing what function
  • Education – credentials
  • Major responsibility and accomplishments
  • Personal summary of work style (plus career goals if applicable)

Prepare in advance using this formula:

  1. “My name is…”
  2. “I’ve worked for X years as a [title]”
  3. “Currently, I’m a [title] at [company]”
  4. “Before that, I was a [title] at [company]”
  5. “I love the challenge of my work, especially the major strengths it allows me to offer, including [A, B, and C]”.
  6. Second, help the interviewer by focusing the question with a question of your own: “What about me would be most relevant to you and what this company needs?”
  1. Did you bring your resume?

Yes. Be prepared with two or three extra copies. Do not offer them unless you’re asked for one.

  1. What do you know about our organization?

Research the target company before the interview. Basic research is the only way to prepare for this question. Do your homework, and you’ll score big on this question. Talk about products, services, history and people, especially any friends that work there. “But I would love to know more, particularly from your point of view. Do we have time to cover that now?

  1. What experience do you have?

Pre-interview research and PPR Career will help you here. Try to cite experience relevant to the company’s concerns. Also, try answering this questions with a question: “Are you looking for overall experience or experience in some specific area of special interest to you?” Let the interviewer’s response guide your answer.

  1. According to your definition of success, how successful have you been so far?

(Is this person mature and self aware?)

Be prepared to define success, and then respond (consistent record of responsibility)

  1. In your current or last position, what were your most significant accomplishments? In your career so far?

Give one or two accomplishment statements

  1. Had you thought of leaving your present position before? If yes, what do you think held you there?

Refer to positive aspects of the job, advancement opportunities, and what you learned.

  1. Would you describe a few situations in which your work was criticized?

Give only one, and tell how you have corrected or plan to correct your work.

  1. If I spoke with your previous boss, what would he or she say are your greatest strengths and weaknesses?

Be consistent with what you think the boss would say. Position the weakness in a positive way (refer to #12)

  1. How would you describe your personality?

Keep your answer short and relevant to the job and the organization’s culture.

  1. What are your strong points?

Present three. Relate them to that particular company and job opening.

  1. What are your weak points?

Don’t say you have one, but give one that is really a “positive in disguise.” I am sometimes impatient and do to much work myself when we are working against tight deadlines.” Or “I compliment and praise my staff, but feel I can improve.”

  1. How did you do in school?

(Is the person motivated? What are his/her values, attitudes? Is there a fit?)

Emphasize your best and favorite subjects. If grades were average, talk about leadership or jobs you took to finance your education. Talk about extra-curricular activities (clubs, sports, volunteer work)

  1. In your current or last position, what features did you like most? Least?

Refer to your satisfiers for likes. Be careful with dislikes, give only one (if any) and make it brief. Refuse to answer negatively. Respond that you “like everything about my current position and have acquired and developed a great many skills, but I’m now ready for a new set of challenges and greater responsibilities.”

  1. What do you look for in a job?

Flip this one over. Despite the question, the employer isn’t really interested in what you are looking for. He’s interested in what he is looking for. Address his interests, rather than yours. Use words like “contribute,” “enhance,” “improve,” and “team environment.” Fit your answer to their needs Relate your preferences and satisfiers/dissatisfiers to the job opening.

  1. How long would it take you to make a meaningful contribution to our firm?

“Not long, because of my experience, transferable skills and ability to learn.”

  1. How long would you stay with us?

“As long as I feel that I’m contributing, and that my contribution is recognized. I’m looking to make a long term commitment.”

  1. If you have never supervised, how do you feel about assuming those responsibilities?

If you want to supervise, say so, and be enthusiastic.

  1. Why do you want to become a supervisor?

“To grow and develop professionally, to help others develop, to build a team and to share what I have learned.”

  1. What do you see as the most difficult task in being a supervisor?

“Getting things planned and done through others and dealing with different personalities.” Show how you have done this in the past.

  1. You’ve been with your current employer quite a while. Why haven’t you advanced with him?

Let’s assume the interviewer has a point here. That doesn’t mean you have to agree with the negative terms of the question. Answer: “What I like about my present position is that it’s both stable and challenging. But it’s true that I’ve grown about as much as I can in my current position. (This response also turns the issue of salary on its head, transforming it from What more can I get? to What more can I offer?)

  1. Why are you leaving your present position?

Never answer with negative reasons, even if they are true. However, some companies have financial problems which may preclude you from staying with them. Frame your answer positively by answering why you want to move to the target company instead of why you left or want to leave your most recent job. For example, instead of answering, “I don’t get enough challenges at [company],” respond, “I am eager to take on more challenges, and I believe I will find them at [hiring company]. ”I’m not unhappy (at my present employer). However, this opportunity seems to be particularly interesting and I am interested in pursuing it further. Never personalize or be negative. Keep it short, give a “group” answer (e.g. our office is closing, the whole organization is being reduced in size). Stick to one response; don’t change answers during the interview. When applicable; best response is: I was not on the market when PPR Career contacted me and explained what you are doing, it peaked my interest.

  1. Describe what would be an ideal working environment?

Team work is the key.

  1. How would you evaluate your present firm?

Be positive. Refer to the valuable experience you have gained. Don’t mention negatives.

  1. Do you prefer working with figures, or with words?

Be aware of what the job requires and position your answer in that context. In many cases it would be both.

  1. What kinds of people do you find difficult to work with?

Use this question as a chance to show that you are a team player: “The only people I have trouble with are those who aren’t team players, who just don’t perform, who complain constantly, and who fail to respond to any efforts to motivate them.” The interviewer is expecting a response focused on personality and personal dislikes. Surprise her by delivering an answer that reflects company values.

  1. How would your co-workers describe you?

Refer to your strengths and skills.

  1. What do you think of your boss?

If you like him or her, say so and tell why. If you don’t like him or her, find something positive to say.

  1. Why do you want to work in a company of this size. Or this type?

Explain how this size or type of company works well for you, using examples from the past if possible.

  1. If you had your choice of jobs and companies, where would you go?

Refer to job preferences. Say that this job and this company are very close to what best suits you.

  1. Why do you want to work for us?

You feel you can help achieve the companies objectives, especially in the short run. You like what you’ve learned about the company, its policies, goals and management: “I’ve researched the company and people tell me it’s a good place to work.”

  1. What was the last book you read? Movie you saw? Sporting event you attended?

Think this through. Your answer should be compatible with accepted norms.

  1. What are you doing, or what have you done to reach your career objectives?

Talk about formal courses and training programs.

  1. What was wrong with your last company?

Again, choose your words carefully. Don’t be negative. Say that no company is perfect, it had both strengths and weaknesses.

  1. What kind of hours are you used to working?

(Does the person match job and criteria?)

“As many hours as it takes to get the job done.”

  1. What would you do for us?

Relate past success in accomplishing the objectives which are similar to those of the prospective employer.

  1. What has your experience been in supervising people?

Give examples from accomplishments.

  1. Are you a good supervisor?

Draw from your successes. Yes, my people like and respect me personally and professionally. They often comment on how much they learn and develop under my supervision.

  1. Did you ever fire anyone? If so, what were the reasons and how did you handle it?

If you haven’t, say so, but add that you could do it, if necessary.

  1. How have you helped your company?

Refer to accomplishments.

  1. What is the most money you ever accounted for? Largest budget responsibility?

Refer to accomplishments. If you haven’t had budget responsibility, say so, but refer to an accomplishment that demonstrates the same skill.

  1. What’s the most difficult situation you ever faced on the job?

Remember, you’re talking to a prospective employer, not your best friend. Don’t dredge up a catastrophe that resulted in a personal or corporate failure. Be ready for this question by thinking of a story that has a happy ending – happy for you and your company. Never digress into personal or family difficulties, and don’t talk about problems you’ve had with supervisors or peers. You might discuss a difficult situation with a subordinate, provided that the issues were resolved inventively and to everyone’s satisfaction.

  1. Describe some situations in which you have worked under pressure or met deadlines?

Refer to accomplishments. Everyone has had a few of these pressure situations in a career. Behavior-related questions aim at assessing a candidate’s character, attitude, and personality traits by asking for an account of how the candidate handled certain challenging situations. Plan for such questions by making a list of the desirable traits relevant to the needs of the industry or prospective employer and by preparing some job-related stories about your experience that demonstrate a range of those traits and habits of conduct. Before answering the questions, listen carefully and ask any clarifying questions you think necessary. Tell your story and conclude by explaining what you intended your story to illustrate. Finally, ask for feedback: “Does this tell you what you need to know?”

  1. How do you handle rejection?

Rejection is part of business. People don’t always buy what you sell. The tick here is to separate rejection of your product from rejection of yourself: “I see rejection as an opportunity. I learn from it. When a customer takes a pass, I ask him what we could do to the product, price or service to make it possible for him to say yes. Don’t get me wrong: You’ve got to makes sales. But rejection is valuable, too. It’s a good teacher.”

  1. In your present position, what problems have you identified that had previously been overlooked?

Refer to accomplishments

  1. Give an example of your creativity.

Refer to accomplishments.

  1. Give examples of your leadership abilities.

Draw examples from accomplishments.

  1. What are your career goals?

Talk first about doing the job for which you are applying. Your career goals should mesh with the hiring company goals.

  1. What position do you expect to have in two years?

Just say you wish to exceed objectives so well that you will be on a promotable track.

  1. What are your objectives?

(How does the person handle stress? What is their confidence level?)

Refer back to question #48 on goals.

  1. Why should we hire you?

This may sound suspicious, negative, or just plain harsh. Actually, it’s a call for help. The employer wants you to help him/her hire you. Keep your response brief. Recap any job requirements the interviewer may have mentioned earlier in the interview, then, point by point, match your skills, abilities and qualifications to those items. Relate a past experience which represents success in achieving objectives which may be similar to those of the prospective employer.

  1. You may be over-qualified or too experienced for the position we have to offer.

“A strong company needs a strong person.” An employer will get faster return on investment because you have more experience than required.

  1. Why haven’t you found a new position before now?

“Finding the right job takes time. I’m not looking for just any job.”

  1. If you could start again, what would you do differently?

No need to be self-revealing. “Hindsight is 20/20; everyone would make some changes, but I’ve learned and grown from all my decisions.”

  1. How much do you expect if we offer this position to you?

Be careful. If you don’t know the market value, return the question by saying that you would expect a fair salary based on the job responsibilities, your experience and skills and the market value of the job. Express your interest in the job because it fits your career goals – Receptive to a reasonable and competitive offer – don’t talk $’s. It’s always best to put off discussing salary and let PPR Career handle that. ANSWER: I’m open to a competitive offer. I’d prefer to discuss the opportunity and allow my recruiter to handle any salary questions.

Best of Luck…. Saaani

Wednesday, November 19, 2008

Exchangepedia Blog: Exchange CVP Terry Myerson heads to Windows Mobile

Exchangepedia Blog: Exchange CVP Terry Myerson heads to Windows Mobile

MS Exchange server FAQ4

How can I send an automatic reply to a person posting to my distribution list?

Create a mailbox, add a rule to that mailbox with the reply you want and add that mailbox to the distribution list.

How can I block emails from a specific domain name?

Open the “Exchange Admin” program, click on “Connections”, go to “Internet Mail Server” and then click on the “Connections” tab. If you have server pack 3 installed you will see a “Message filtering” button, click the button and finally click on “new”, finally insert the particular domain name in this format “”. For the change to take effect you must stop/start the IMS in “Services” (Found in Control Panel).

How can I block emails from a specific email address?

Open the “Exchange Admin” program, click on “Connections”, go to “Internet Mail Server” and then click on the “Connections” tab. If you have server pack 2 installed you will see a “Message filtering” button, click the button and finally click on “new”. Insert the particular email address and you are done. For the change to take effect you must stop/start the IMS in “Services” (Found in Control Panel).

What reporting tools are available that can measure Exchange 5.5 usage?

- Promodag Reports –

- Mail Essentials –

- MailWatch -

- Seagate Crystal Reports -

Can an Information store be restored on another server?

The answer is yes (that is it can be restored on another other than the one it was backed up from) This is typically the last method or recovering a mailbox or a message. The server where the IS is restored has to be one that is not in use and it should not be connected to the same organization. Remember that this restores only the IS and not the Directory.

What is the hierarchy of permission on Public Folders?

Administrator can grant permissions to other users on specific public folders or allow them to create top level public folders. A owner of a public folder (even if he is not the administrator) can allow other users create sub-folders.

What is the difference between the ‘Send on Behalf" and "Send As" permissions on a mailbox?

Send on Behalf permission enables another user to send messages on behalf of the mailbox owner. Delegate’s name appears in the message. Send As permission is lot more serious as one user can send message and the recipient of that message would see as if the message has been sent by the original mailbox owner. Whereas the "Send on behalf" permission can be given from Client or the Administrator program, "Send As" permission can be given only be the administrator.

What is Address Space?

The connectors and the gateways create paths for sending messages outside. The path a connector uses to send a message outside is represented by an address space. A connector must have at least one address space.

What is Replication conflict in case of Public Folders?

A conflict occurs when a message is modified in two or more replicas of the public folder, where each of the modifications are made before the other can replicate.

Can I display the name of the public folder in the Global address list so that the users can post messages by selecting the name?

Every Public folder has an email address and the entry of the public folder is hidden in the Global address list. Double click on the public folder and select the Advanced tab. Uncheck the "Hide from address book" option.

What is ISINTEG Utility?

This utility checks the integrity of the IS. It locates and removes the errors from the Private and Public Information stores (PRIV.EDB and PUB.EDB). This is required to be used when the database is damaged and IS doesn’t start.

What is ESEUTIL Utility?

This utility defragments, repairs and checks the integrity of the Information store (IS) and Directory. This is used very often in case of disaster recovery processes. It should be used under experienced hand. Utility is available in the Windows NT ssytem32 directory.

Some of the users are complaining that their Auto forwards & Auto replies are not reaching

the Internet recipients but there is no problem with the local recipients. What’s wrong?

Most probably the options for Auto replies and auto forwards to Internet is disabled under the IMS properties. By default the settings are such that these are disabled. So the auto replies would not reach the Internet recipients but would work locally without any problem.

What is the use of Server Monitor?

Server Monitor can be used to monitor the Exchange server services viz Message transfer agent (MTA). It can be configured so that notifications are sent when the service has gone down.

What is the use of Link Monitor?

Link monitor can be used to verify the connections between various servers and other foreign systems. Link monitor is included in the administrator program.

What is Alerter Service?

This is a handy tool by which e computers / users can be alerted of some specific event in the Exchange server viz. low disk space. This can be set from Control Panel / Server. Click on the

Alerts button and type the computer or the user name to send the alerts.

Why should the IMS message size limits be set?

This could be required because the company has a policy on the message size for security reasons. Also when the bandwidth is scarce, it is a handy tool to ensure that most of the messages are delivered rather than a queue is formed due to one large message. Set the maximum message size limit in the General tab of the IMS property page. This limit is applicable for any message that IMS processes.

PRIV.EDB seems to grow all the time. Even when the mailboxes are deleted there is no change in the file size. What’s wrong?

There is nothing wrong, except that the physical storage space is not released by this database when the objects are deleted viz. a mailbox. This is required to be defragmented before it is too large and a lot of space is wasted. ESEUTIL utility can do this job. Read more about this utility before attempting defragmentation.

What are the PRIV.EDB & PUB.EDB files?

These are the Exchange server databases for the Private Information Store and the Public Information Store respectively.

Can I change the Exchange Organization name?

It can not be done easily and must be avoided. If the need for change is properly evaluated and understood then most probably it would be sufficient to alter the Display name. To do so, select the organization object and use the properties dialog box.

How does the Antivirus API Scan Attachments?

This article is intended to help Exchange Server administrators understand the architecture of the new antivirus application programming interface (API) that is introduced in Exchange Server 5.5 Service Pack 3 (SP3), and possible effects that any third-party software that uses the antivirus API may have.;en-us;Q263949&ID=kb;en-us;Q263949

Is it possible to connect exchange servers through a VPN connection?

Yes, it is possible.

What components of Exchange can I move off the exchange server machine?

Start with the IMS. Set up a workstation-class machine as an Exchange server, create an IMS, follow the relevant steps to move the SMTP service to another server, then remove the one from your mailbox server. It's a good place to start, and it's a good thing to do because the IMS has been known to stop mailbox servers from time to time.

Start with the IMS. Set up a workstation-class machine as an Exchange server, create an IMS, follow the relevant steps to move the SMTP service to another server, then remove the one from your mailbox server. It's a good place to start, and it's a good thing to do because the IMS has been known to stop mailbox servers from time to time.

How do I move a single Exchange server to a machine with the same name?

Check the following document available in the Microsoft Knowledge Base about the recommended way this should be done:

Is there a way to encrypt information being passed between two sites using the Exchange site connector?

The RPC connection between Site Connectors (as opposed to x.400 or SMTP connectors) is already encrypted via RPC API calls. However, it's not industrial-strength encryption; more security through obscurity. If this is not sufficient, setup a VPN. VPN in this case is recommended at firewall level so the servers have nothing to do with the actual VPN itself.

The X400 Connector for Exchange 5.5 is discontinued. Is there anyway how we connect multiple exchange servers over the Internet without this connector?

Either you can utilise the IMS aka the internet mail connector. You would need to configure a directory replication connector at each end for directory replication in this case. Otherwise the other option is to upgrade to the Exchange 5.5 Enterprise edition

I check against all the files on my exchange server 5.5 regularly. The only file that changes everday is the Mapisvc.inf in c:\winnt\systems32

Mapisvc.inf is the file that holds the various services that you can install and how they are configured. In Outlook, when you click Tools>Services>Add, that list of available services comes from the mapisvc.inf file. You can manually edit it if you want, to remove services you don't want the users to install (MS Mail, etc for example)

How do I convert an .ost file into a .pst file for recovery?

There are several third party products that can help with this. One of them is detailed at the following link:

I have a Windows 2000 server running exchange 5.5 sp3 and deleted some files I shouldn't (log files) and the information store won't start

Download the Exchange 5.5 Disaster Recovery white paper at the following link:

Is it possible to configure Exchange to put in a 'reply-to' address for a Distribution List? So if someone hits 'reply' to a DL post, that reply goes to the list and not to the sender?

You can add send-as permissions to the DL for the originating user, and that will allow the named people to send as (therefore have the Return Address) the DL.

When a user logs in Outlook Web Access, it says that the password will expire in 0 days, and to change it under options. This error does not go away, even after the password changes, nor when the password is set to expire.

The are the following documents available in the Microsoft Knowledge Base about this issue:

I am using Outlook 2000 and when my .pst file reaches the 2Gb size limit the .pst file becomes unusable

Microsoft advise you to look out for third party software that can get your data back. However a quick and efficient method is to install Outlook 98, and open the .pst file using Outlook 98. This way you can split the .pst file in smaller .pst files that can be read by Outlook 2000.

When I set up the 'Out of Office assistant' in Outlook, the auto reply is only generated once. After the first reply I do not get anymore replies.

The Out of Office reply is generated once per sender per out of office period. So if you get the message once, you won't get it again until the user turns off Out of Office, and then turns it back on again.

How do I import a local 'Contacts' list to a Public folder?

Use the File/Import option of Outlook to import all contacts into a folder locally. Then manually copy all the created entries from the local folder to the public folder.

When adding a new mailbox, this error appears: "The object xxx with the directory name 'xx' already exits. Enter a unique alias name on the General property page for this mail recipient"

Check for mailboxes with the same directory name. This is how exchange makes associations to mailboxes. You may have changed the alias but a duplicate directory name still exists. The directory name can be found under the "advanced" tab of the users' mailbox properties check this for duplicates. You can also specify a specific directory name instead of taking the default alias name as the directory name in your mailbox creation.

How do I export an Exchange/Outlook address book to a CSV file?

In Exchange Administrator: Tools &gr; Directory Export

Deleting a group of emails from Outlook 2000 hangs the system, how can this be fixed?

This is a problem brought about by SP3, therefore SP2 and below should not have this problem. Solution; Run Optimizer.

How can I search the Excahgne DS and find which Exchange mailbox has a particular STMP alias assigned to it?

1) Run Microsoft Exchange Administrator

2) Click on Global Address List

3) Make sure View/All is checked.

4) Make sure View/Hidden Recipients is checked.

5) Make sure "E-Mail Address (Internet) is a displayed column. If not, add it by choosing View/Columns

6) Highlight all rows in the display

7) Choose File/Save Window Contents and save file as "c:\ex1.csv" for example

8) Make sure View/Hidden Recipients is unchecked.

9) Highlight all rows in the display

10) Choose File/Save Window Contents and save file as "c:\ex2.csv" for example

11) Use a tool like Notepad to search the resulting .CSV files for the address you are looking for.

When message pass through the MTA, is there any cache for storing the message?

Yes, the cache is \exchsrvr\metadata

Contents of the .stm File Are Not Scanned When Using Antivirus API, is there a workaround for this?

The antivirus API that is present in Exchange 2000 Server does not contain the capability to properly scan the contents of the streaming media (.stm) file. Because Internet-based clients store the message content in the .stm file in native MIME format, the content is not scanned when the message is accessed by any other client, including MAPI-based clients. For more information about the conditions that must be present for the antivirus API to properly scan message attachments, see the "More Information" section later in this article. More info:;en-us;Q286638

MAPI-Based Tasks Do Not Work with Virus API Anti-Virus Software Running on the Exchange Server Computer, is there a workaround for this?

This issue can occur if these MAPI operations gain access to a large number of attachments that have not been scanned by using the current virus signatures. The MAPI operations do not determine that the attachments are waiting to be scanned; therefore a timeout error message is displayed if the scans are not completed to make the attachments available to the MAPI request in a sufficient amount of time. More information at:;EN-US;Q264731

What enhancements have been made to the virus scanning application programming interface (API), which Exchange 2000 Server Service Pack 1 (SP1) contains for Exchange administrators and independent software vendors (ISVs)?

This article describes the enhancements to the virus scanning application programming interface (API) that Exchange 2000 Server Service Pack 1 (SP1) contains for Exchange administrators and independent software vendors (ISVs). This article describes new features,

behavior changes, and troubleshooting suggestions.;EN-US;Q285667

What are the new Performance Monitor counters to assist in troubleshooting virus scanning application programming interface (API)?

Exchange 2000 Server Service Pack 1 (SP1) provides Exchange administrators with Performance Monitor counters to assist in troubleshooting virus scanning application programming interface (API) issues. This article contains a list of the counters and a description of each counter.;en-us;Q285696

What new events have been introduced with Exchange 2000 Server SP1 which relate to the new Virus Scanning API 2.0?

Exchange 2000 Server Service Pack 1 (SP1) introduces many new enhancements to the virus scanning application programming interface (API). One of these enhancements is new virus scanning API-specific event logging. This article contains a list of the new events that are introduced with Exchange 2000 Server SP1 and describes how to enable those events.;en-us;Q294336

Is there any software to interface a Palm device with Exchange?

Please check the following link:

I am trying to put all the contacts under a Public Folder to be accessable using the LDAP protocol. I checked the DS Configuration and the protocol, both were enabled and the port 389 is also correct. Still I am only able to do an LDAP on only the domain Windows 2000 users information but if I try to search a public record then its not accessable.

LDAP can only be used to access directory information, contacts in a Public Folder are not part of a directory, so they aren't accessible.

Where does the time stamp come from in an OWA (Outlook Web Access) 2000 originated message?

In the OWA 2000 options, the user can specify a time zone which is the source of the time stamp.

In Exchange 5.5 you could route domains to another domain through the internet mail connector. For instance, suppose I have "" and I have all my email addresses set up for "". Then I buy the domain "" I used to be able to route all email that went to "" to "" without adding the additional emails to my users. Is this still possible in Exchange 2000? If so,where?

How it worked in 5.5

In Exchange 5.5, if you wanted to route messages for and to one Exchange org, you could: - add the additional domain name to the Routing tab of the IMS - tell it to treat mail for as ; then any messages delivered to your Exchange users that had an SMTP domain of would be delivered.

How it works in Exchange 2000

You cannot add a local domain. There is Domains node in the UI. The only way to end up creating domains is to: 1. Add recipient policies 2. Put the domains as an address space on an SMTP connector.

In Exchange 2000 where can you set an administrative email address, such that if an email is sent to a recipient that does not exist or is misspelled, the email message will be forwarded to the exchange administrator.

Go to the properties of your virtual server and go to the 'Messages' tab. Add an entry to "Send a copy of NDR's to".

I have installed Exchange 2000 on my server and setup the SMTP connector. I send a test message from another system to and it bounces back with an error claiming the system cannot "relay" for".

The SMTP Connector has nothing to do with inbound mail. Inbound mail is handled by the SMTP Virtual Server.

1. The domain needs to exist as an SMTP rule in one of the Recipient Policies.

2. The address needs to be valid for the user.

3. The SMTP Virtual Server needs to be configured to accept inbound mail from Anonymous senders. This should be the default in RTM, but was not the default earlier. There were also issues with this when Win2K SP1 is not installed.

After that, you need to check the event logs/turn up logging to figure out what's happening.

How can I check if my Anti Virus product is protecting against all threats?

Unfortunately, you can rarely be completely secure. However, the least you can do is check for known threats. A free test zone can be found at: . If your anti virus product catches all the tests you are secure - at least from the known ones.

Do Exchange Anti Virus products protect against Email exploits?

Some do, some don't. Most anti virus products protected against known viruses only - therefore if an e-mail virus/attack uses an existing exploit in a new way, it could very well be that your anti virus product will not detect it. Mail security for Exchange 2000 has an exploit engine built in.

Do Anti virus products based on VS API scan e-mail at gateway level?

No, anti virus products using VS API will only scan the information store. Therefore, mail will not be scanned at the perimter of your network, but rather when it reaches the stores. If you wish to have gateway level scanning you need to invest in a separate gateway anti virus product.

What is the recommended way to do Anti Virus on Exchange 2000?

It is recommended that Exchange 2000 you use a product that supports the new Virus API. The virus api has been specifically designed for Anti Virus products to integrate into. Some of the products that integrate via VS API are Mail security (, Panda software ( and Trend Micro Scanmail (

Tell me a bit about the capabilities of Exchange Server.
Microsoft Exchange Server is a messaging and collaborative software product developed by Microsoft. It is part of the Microsoft Servers line of server products and is widely used by enterprises using Microsoft infrastructure solutions. Exchange's major features consist of electronic mail, calendaring, contacts and tasks, and support for the mobile and web-based access to information, as well as supporting data storage.

What are the different Exchange 2003 versions?
Exchange Server 2003 is available in two versions, Standard Edition and Enterprise Edition.

What are the main differences between Exchange 5.5 and Exchange 2000/2003?
Exchange 5.5 does not integrate with the NT4 domain or the Windows 2000/2003 Active Directory in a meaningful way. A single user could be associated with several different mailboxes. Exchange 2000/2003/2007 integrates tightly with Active Directory, and there is a 1:1 relationship between mailboxes and AD user accounts. There are other differences, depending on whether you have a standard or enterprise version as it relates to maximum database size, but the directory integration is probably the biggest difference.

To which group does the account that runs the initial ForestPrep in the domain with the Schema Master need to belong so that the AD schema can be extended properly?
Enterprise Administrator
Schema Administrator

To run a DomainPrep on a domain for the first time, a user account needs to be a member of which group?
Domain Administrator

Which of the servers does the system that will host the first Exchange Server 2003 server in a forest need to be able to contact during installation?
DNS Server
Schema Master
Domain Controller
DNS server is required so that the system on which the Exchange Server is being installed can locate the Schema Master and a domain controller.

What are the benefits of running Exchange Server 2003 in native, rather than mixed mode?
User mailboxes can moved between administrative groups.
LDAP query-based distribution groups can be used.
The default routing protocol is SMTP
You can move Exchange Server 2003 computers from one routing group to another.